Perovskite Chalcogenides are a new class of semiconductors with very high absorption coefficient, giant optical anisotropy and tunable band gaps in the visible to infrared energies. In this talk, I will briefly summarize advances made both in my research group and in the research community on the theory, synthesis of these materials and understanding their physical properties. Among these materials, I will discuss the unconventional properties of quasi-1D hexagonal chalcogenides with face shared transition metal – chalcogen octahedra. First, I will outline the large linear optical anisotropy in these materials in terms of birefringence, dichroism, and linear dichroism conversion properties in the mid- to long-wave infrared energies. Second, I will discuss the observation of ultra-low glassy thermal conductivity in single crystals of these materials and a possible explanation for this observation. Third, I will elucidate our efforts to understand electronic transitions arising from the quasi-1D structure, how these observations can lead to novel electronic and photonic functionalities. Finally, I will provide a general outlook for future studies and applications of these exciting new class of materials.